Growing winter garlic: agricultural technology
Small secrets of large garlic. Part 1
I get this winter garlic every year.
There have already been a lot of publications about the cultivation of garlic in the magazine. Especially it concerns growing winter garlic.
Communicating with our Omsk gardeners, I noticed a sad tendency: recently, many people have not been successful with garlic. The winter of 2009-2010 in our region was critical for garlic. In October, frosts below -20 ° C lasted three weeks without snow. Further it gets worse: almost the whole winter the thermometer stayed around the -30 ° C mark. As a result, the ground froze to a depth of more than three meters. In many places, water pipes laid below 2.5 meters were frozen. On my site, the well was usually ready for use in early May. This year it thawed only in mid-July. Summer turned out to be a match for winter. Ice at a depth of 2-2.5 meters lasted until half of the summer, cooling the soil from below and cutting off the rise of capillary moisture from the depth.
At the same time, the air temperature remained unusually low until June. Vegetation of all plants was delayed by 2-3 weeks. And then - multi-day heat within + 30 ° С without rain. Winter garlic died in many gardeners. Almost all of them survived on my site. And not only survived, but also gave a good harvest. The average head mass was 60 grams. There were many 100-gram heads. The harvest of this extremely extreme season has finally convinced me of the correctness of the developed technology for growing winter garlic.
It is very important that the soil for the garlic is loose. The best soils are sandy loam. But I have a heavy loam. And not plowed and not dug for many years. The soil is porous in structure, with an abundance of voids, but solid, not crumbly. Roots and potatoes feel comfortable in such soil. But garlic doesn't like the hardness of the soil. Apparently, there is not enough strength for the growing head to push apart the solid ground. I was convinced of this by conducting a simple experiment. He loosened half of the garden in the spring, left the other half untouched. The whole garden bed was covered with fallen leaves of trees all season. As a result, on the loosened part of the bed the heads grew twice as large.
The experiment was repeated the next year. And again the same result - the heads on loose soil are twice as large. It became finally clear - the soil for garlic should not only be porous, but crumbly, such as sandy loam or compost.
Making the soil crumbly is not difficult, you just have to dig it up with the addition of a large amount of compost or sand. But at the same time, the established structure of the soil with a system of capillaries and pores is disturbed. The life of the microcosm of the soil is disrupted. The water stops rising - there are no capillaries. With my irrigated agricultural technology, this is unacceptable. It turns out that for me it is necessary for the soil in the root area to remain porous, but firm - so there is enough air in the soil and the capillary rise of water works properly. And in the area where the heads are located, the soil should be crumbly. I don't use compost.
The solution turned out to be simple. I cultivate the soil with the Tornado Krivulin cultivator to a depth of 5-7 cm. I level the bed with a rake. On top, I evenly pour sand with a layer of 3-4 cm. With a small Fokin flat cutter I draw grooves to the depth of the loosened layer. In this case, the bulk of the sand is in the grooves. Next, I plant the cloves of garlic practically in the sand - I deepen them to a solid base. It turns out that the bottom of the cloves is at a depth of about 8 cm. Above the upper edge of the cloves, the layer is not more than 4 cm.
Rape sprouts well in a garlic bed
When the garden is planted, I sprinkle the seeds of spring rape. I level the bed with a rake, while the rape seeds are embedded in the soil. If the ground is dry, I water it.
So the bed remains until stable frosts, which we have, as a rule, in mid-October. Rape quickly emerges and grows actively until the very frost, building up a fairly large mass of tops and roots. It tolerates small negative temperatures well, some plants have time to bloom.
When the rape is frozen, I cover the beds with leaf litter with a layer of up to 5 cm. I put potato or tomato tops on top of the leaves. I do this just in case - the moist foliage laid on the garden bed itself holds well, forming a dense shell.
Further to the garlic beds it is worth approaching in the spring, after the snow melts - remove the tops and put them right there in the paths. Leaves over the winter are strongly caked, forming a dense cover. No further care is required. The sheet armor keeps moisture very well. In the last extremely dry season, during harvesting, the ground was sufficiently wet without a single irrigation. Annual weeds cannot break through the foliage. Loosening is not required. The required soil friability will be provided by the sand in the area of the heads. Before harvesting, it remains only to remove the arrows. I don’t give fertilizers and dressings. Garlic has enough rapeseed mass that decomposes under the mulch.
I want to pay special attention to planting time of winter garlic... The vast majority of authors recommend planting garlic in early October. I think that in our region, the implementation of this recommendation leads to the freezing of garlic. I plant in late August - early September. And there are no contradictions with the recommendations of scientists.
For example, here is a quote from an Omsk newspaper: “For a good overwintering, garlic must take root, but not germinate. For this, it is advisable to plant garlic 40-50 days before stable frosts. Usually the planting of garlic is timed to the beginning of October ".
Most likely, such a text is absolutely true for the European part of Russia. But in the south of the Omsk region, stable negative temperatures are established, as a rule, in mid-October. So consider how long the planted teeth will spend in the ground before frost - 10, maximum 20 days. But certainly not 40-50! Unrooted teeth in our 30-degree frost with a snow cover of 10 cm are doomed to death. But in local newspapers, the planting date is persistent - the beginning of October.
Experimenting with planting timing, planting garlic cloves at 10-day intervals from September 1st. The first plantings were the most productive. Plantings in early October, although they survived (80%) thanks to a thick layer of mulch, yielded a yield 50% lower than in early September.
Later I conducted another experiment. In early October, I planted dry teeth and teeth with 5-7 cm long roots germinated in a damp napkin. In the second case, the yield turned out to be 50% better. The conclusion suggests itself. To determine the date for planting garlic, you should not be guided by the dates prescribed in the recommendations. For their region, everyone must calculate the landing time himself.
Read the second part of the article - Growing winter garlic: the choice of planting material
Oleg Telepov, member of the Omsk club of potato growers
Landing before winter
To obtain a good harvest of garlic planted for the winter, it is necessary to allocate a fertile plot of land. Literally a month before planting, the soil is specially prepared. It is carefully dug up, clods of earth are crushed. For these purposes, you can use a motor cultivator about the choice, which we wrote here. At the same time, complex fertilizers and organic matter are introduced into the soil. Try to avoid applying fresh manure. It can cause the onset and spread of fungal infections. Then cut and form ridges 5-10 centimeters high and 70-80 centimeters wide.
TIP: planting garlic is best done in the place where cucumbers, cabbage, and zucchini used to grow. It is not recommended to plant in places where garlic and onions grew. This can lead to diseases of the grown crop and damage by onion flies.
Be sure to calibrate the winter garlic cloves before planting. Delete all small instances. Also, denticles with clear signs of degeneration are subject to mandatory removal. These include material with two tops and double fruiting bodies. Pre-disinfect all planting material in one of two solutions:
- 1% solution of copper sulfate. Exposure should be about 25 minutes.
- Ash solution (2 liters of water + 1 glass of ash to boil for 30 minutes). Exposure of planting material for about 1.5-2 hours
When planting winter varieties of garlic, the cloves are deepened into the soil to a depth of 5 cm, while the distance is counted from their apical part. The rows should be at a distance of 20 cm from each other. It should be at least 10 cm between the cloves. If you plant more often, the plants will fight for space and will not gain the required mass. After all these manipulations, the soil should be covered with non-woven needle-punched spunbond geotextiles.
Growing spring and winter garlic: the technology of planting and caring for garlic in the open field
Garlic is a perennial plant that reproduces vegetatively by cloves, bulbs (single-toothed) or air bulbs (bulbs) formed in the inflorescence. In the mountainous regions of the south, garlic is sometimes able to form seeds.
Garlic has narrow-linear, rigid leaves and a false erect, sometimes lodging stem. A garlic bulb consists of 4 ... 30 cloves with dry scales, predominantly silvery-white, purple and other colors. The teeth are attached to a shortened stem (bottom).
Garlic has two subspecies: Allium sativum L. subsp. sigittatum Kuzn. - arrowhead and Allium sativum L. subsp. vulgare Kuzn. - non-shooting (ordinary) garlic. Both subspecies have spring and winter forms. Spring garlic is later ripe, less productive, but has good keeping quality. Winter garlic is more productive and early ripe, poorly stored, more suitable for the canning industry. Winter garlic bulbs consist of fewer larger cloves than spring garlic. Winter garlic, when planted in spring with cloves instead of a clove bulb, forms a single clove. Single-tooth bulbs are also formed during the autumn sowing of bulbs, in spring garlic - from the middle small cloves and in hot weather.
Common varieties can be divided into three groups: winter crops, non-shooting, and spring, mainly non-shooting.
Garlic is cold-resistant. Its roots begin to grow at a temperature of 0 ... 5 ° C, shoots appear at 6 ... 8 ° C. The teeth are formed at 15 ... 20 ° C, and ripen at 20 ... 25 ° C. Spring varieties are relatively less winter hardy.
Leaves begin to grow after the root system has grown sufficiently, their number depends on the variety, its early maturity and growing conditions. Under normal conditions, in winter garlic, it does not exceed 7-9 pcs.
The width of the leaves is 1-3 cm (depending on the width of the cloves). In winter garlic, the leaves and cloves are usually wide, in spring garlic, they are narrow.
The height of the arrow is 0.6-1.5 m. It is smooth and even, without swelling. At the end there are air bulbs (bulbs), the number of which ranges from several pieces to several hundred. Sometimes there are so many of them that the upper end of the arrow splits into 2-4 parts and it seems that the inflorescence consists of several globular umbrellas. Between the air bulbs are flowers that dry up in the bud phase. The inflorescence is enclosed in a dense veil with a sharp end.
The weight of the clove varies between 3-10 g. The color of the hard scales of the clove, depending on the variety and growing conditions, is from intense brown to cream, as a rule, with a purple tint of varying intensity.
Garlic is extremely demanding on soil fertility and moisture, since the main part of the root system is located superficially.
In spring, with a lack of water, it usually stops growing and forms a small bulb.
Garlic germinates at 3-5 ° C. The formation of cloves occurs at a temperature of 15-20 ° C, maturation - at 20-25X.
In vegetable gardens, garlic is planted between rows of other vegetable plants to protect them from diseases and pests. Vegetating garlic plants, releasing phytoncides (antibiotics of higher plants) into the air, create a protective sterile zone around themselves.
The best precursors of garlic are legumes, pumpkin seeds, greens, early cabbage, steam. It is very important that the predecessor vacate the field no later than 1 ... 1.5 months before planting the garlic. Otherwise, the technology of growing garlic has a lot in common with the cultivation of onions.
Planting winter garlic bulbs
Before planting the bulbs in the garden, make grooves 3 cm deep at a distance from each other. Large bulbs are planted at a distance of up to 3 cm, and small ones - up to 2 cm. Up to 70 bulbs are sown per one running meter of the furrow. A single-tooth that grows on this furrow will be enough to plant in the fall m2 of beds intended for growing marketable garlic.
If the garlic is not planned to be transplanted next fall, do not transplant, then the bulbs are sown much less often - large bulbs are laid out after 4 cm, and small ones - after 3 cm.
The best time for planting bulbs is second half of September, that is, one and a half months before the onset of stable winter cold weather. On the prepared beds, grooves are made 3 cm deep when planting in spring and 4 cm when planting in autumn.
To protect garlic from diseases, you can soak the bulbs and one-toothed cloves before planting for an hour in a warm solution of potassium permanganate or in preparations such as: "Rizoplan", "Barrier", "Barrier".
After planting, cover the grooves with fertile soil or humus, slightly compact with mulch with peat or compost.
Caring for a bed with bulbs of garlic consists in loosening the soil, watering and feeding. In the phase of the second leaf, feed the crops with a mullein solution (1:10), spending 2 liters per 1 m2 of beds. Repeat feeding after two weeks.
Winter garlic is best grown in a direct manner. Photo: Park Seed Blog
Remove one-toothed in late July - early August, when the tops of the garlic died. Dig in the plants with a pitchfork so as not to damage the garlic sets. After the seedlings are dried in the sun, and when it begins to rustle, they are cleaned of the remnants of roots and leaves.
With a direct culture, the seedlings grown from the bulbs are not dug out, leaving in the soil for the second winter.
Four assistants to the summer resident
Why is it hard for people to abandon traditional farming? Because this habit has developed over the years. And in order to introduce something new, first of all, you need to change your thinking.
"Like everyone else, so do I." After all, it is so convenient to walk along a trodden path: to dig up everything deeper, and if we weed it out, then not a single blade of grass could be seen in the garden. And few people think: is this right, is it useful for the garden? After all, the landowner has its own interests - she needs us to help her, not harm her. But for this we need to change the habits of caring for our garden. If you want a bountiful, tasty and nitrate-free crop, be patient and do not write off saying "no" to a flat cutter, siderates and similar novelties. After all, in order to reject something, you first need to try everything. For example, purchase flat cutter - the first assistant to the gardener.
The second assistant is the siderates. The main crops here are rye, mustard, and phycelia. Having a well-developed root system and a rapid growth of green mass, green manures effectively loosen the root layer of the soil, bind nutrients and convert them into forms that are easily assimilated by other plants. In order to get the maximum effect from the use of green manure, it is necessary to cut the plants in the soil at a depth of 2-4 cm, grinding at this green mass. In this case, rotting of the root system of green manure plants will begin, which, on the one hand, will make it possible to enrich the soil with organic matter, and on the other hand, to create the structure of the soil. The most important thing is not to dig up the soil after the green manure! After all, when digging, we break the structure of the soil.
Third assistant to the summer resident - mulch. As soon as shoots have appeared, lay the aisles with small grass without seeds. The layer of mulch should be at least 5 cm thick. Increase it as necessary. With good mulching, you bow to the garden bed only to thin out the seedlings and increase the layer of mulch, and not to water, loosen and weed them endlessly.
The fourth irreplaceable gardener friend - compost ... Set aside space on your lot for compost heap. Put food waste, green mass from the site (except for diseased plants), fallen leaves, sawdust, cardboard, manure into it. If possible, alternate all this in layers, periodically sprinkling them with earth, moisten the contents compost pit ... Use biological products (they will facilitate faster processing of the contents of the compost pit) and fertilize the soil on the site with the ready-made "product". With such fertilizer, you will not harm the earth or plants in any way. You will see the result at the end of the season in the form of a bountiful harvest. If you consistently use all these helpers, already in the second or third year you will see how lush the soil has become and how pleasant it is to work on it. And then you will never want to change the plane cutter for a shovel and a hoe.
Dates of disembarkation and preparation of the garden
Despite the fact that the planting of spring garlic occurs in the spring, the garden for it needs to be prepared in the fall. This type of culture feels good in fairly light and fertile soils (sandy loam, loam) with a neutral acid-base reaction. High acidity can be neutralized by adding dolomite flour, the "heaviness" of the soil - with sand, its "lightness" - with powdered clay.
An open, sunny place is chosen for the garden. It is desirable to have some kind of barrier nearby that protects it from the north wind. A slight slope is also encouraged - in this case, a quick drain of water is ensured. The stagnation of moisture at the roots of spring garlic categorically does not tolerate. For the same reason, its landing in the lowlands is excluded - there is melt and rain water for a long time, cold damp air accumulates.
It is imperative to dig a bed for garlic deeply, at the same time clearing it of plant and other debris
The selected area is dug to a depth of 35–40 cm, in the process of introducing all the necessary fertilizers. For 1 m² about three glasses of sifted wood ash, 4–5 liters of humus or rotted compost and 10–15 g of complex fertilizer containing nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (Nitroammofosk, Azofosk, Ammofosk) will be used. In the spring, before planting, the bed will need to be loosened well again.
Compared to winter garlic, spring garlic needs more nutritious soil, everything you need is added to the soil in the fall.
We must not forget about crop rotation. Poor precursors for garlic are any bulbous (including flowers), carrots and plants from the Solanaceae family. Any legumes and cereals, greens, all types of cabbage, Pumpkin (cucumbers, zucchini, pumpkins, squash, melons) are suitable in this regard. The culture can be returned to its original place not earlier than after 5 years.
Garlic carrots are a poor precursor, but a very healthy neighbor
Spring garlic benefits the garden, being planted near roses, berry bushes, garden strawberries. It effectively repels many pests typical for these crops, especially slugs and weevils. But the neighborhood with cabbage, peas, beans is undesirable - garlic inhibits their growth.
Garlic planted on the same bed with garden strawberries effectively scares away slugs from berries - pests do not like a pungent smell
The planting time of spring garlic is determined by the climate in the region. By this time, the soil should warm up to 5–7 ° С. But you can't hesitate too much, otherwise the substrate, saturated with melt water, will have time to dry out. And the culture does not like excessive dryness of the soil, as well as heat. In warm southern regions, planting can be planned as early as the end of March, in areas with a temperate climate - for the last decade of April. In the Urals, Siberia and the Far East, the dates are shifted forward by another 2-3 weeks.
Spring garlic must be planted in moist soil
The bulbs feel comfortable and begin to form roots even at an air temperature of 4–8 ° C. As soon as the weather is stable (above 12-15 ° C), the development of the root system stops, and the formation of the bulb begins. If the plant by this time does not have sufficiently strong roots, it will not be able to provide it with nutrients in the required volume, which will negatively affect the quantity and quality of the crop.
You should not be afraid of returnable spring frosts. The cold hardiness of spring garlic is much less than that of winter garlic, but it will successfully survive small negative temperatures.
Growing garlic on a windowsillGarlic can be grown on a windowsill if desired. Photo: g.janecraft.net
You can count on the next harvest, of course, only next season, but the one that we plant in pots or seedling boxes installed on a light window sill and on a glazed balcony - right now!
Let me emphasize that garlic is a cold-resistant culture and does not require a lot of heat for its development. But ascorbic acid and other vitamins and medicinal substances in the growing green leaves accumulate five times more (up to 50 mg /%) than in the onion heads. Such greens are healthier than lemons and oranges!
Therefore, plant your teeth for health (in the literal sense of the word) not only in the garden, but also in any pots, plastic cups and boxes - for use in autumn and even winter.
A large volume and depth of the container are not necessary (it is enough until it is not important in this case, the fertility of the soil (you can even use wet sand, bog sphagnum moss, peat, any soil), and fertilizing with fertilizers is not needed, since vitamin leaves quickly develop exclusively due to the nutrients contained in the cloves.But here, unlike planting in the ground, it is important to know: the larger the cloves, the more intensively and in greater quantities the greens grow. Just do not overgrow it: the younger, the healthier and tastier.
It is advisable to renew such plantings every By the way, it is in the germinated form (with young green or etiolated shoots grown without access to light) that garlic is traditionally consumed in China and Japan, and the local long-livers, distinguished by enviable health, eat this every day.
As for the "aroma" that is not too pleasant for outsiders, they get rid of it in two ways: either they consume these vegetables exclusively at night with the whole family, and in the morning they rinse their mouth with a mint elixir and brush their teeth more thoroughly than usual, or they eat it with parsley or natural coffee beans, which noticeably fights off any foreign smell.
Incidentally, in the family gardens of the United States and Western Europe, it has recently even been customary to grow a special "snack" from the smell of garlic - such a specific green culture as rue. Even strong garlic odor is best eliminated.
Suzan V.G., Doctor of Agricultural Sciences sciences, professor